List of procedures

Click a letter to jump to the start of the list of commands starting with this letter.


ABIVARIATE produces graphs and statistics for bivariate analysis of variance.
ABLUPS calculates BLUPs for block terms in an ANOVA analysis.
ABOXCOX estimates the power λ in a Box-Cox transformation, that maximizes the partial log-likelihood in ANOVA.
ACANONICAL determines the orthogonal decomposition of the sample space for a design, using an analysis of the canonical relationships between the projectors derived from two or more model formulae.
ACDISPLAY provides further output from an analysis by ACANONICAL.
ACHECK checks assumptions for an ANOVA analysis.
ACKEEP saves information from an analysis by ACANONICAL.
ACONFIDENCE calculates simultaneous confidence intervals for ANOVA means.
ADETECTION calculates the minimum size of effect or contrast detectable in an analysis of variance.
ADPOLYNOMIAL plots single-factor polynomial contrasts fitted by ANOVA.
ADSPREADSHEET puts the data and plan of an experimental design into Genstat spreadsheets.
AEFFICIENCY calculates efficiency factors for experimental designs.
AFALPHA generates alpha designs.
AFAUGMENTED forms an augmented design.
AFCARRYOVER forms factors to represent carry-over effects in cross-over trials.
AFCOVARIATES defines covariates from a model formula for ANOVA.
AFCYCLIC generates block and treatment factors for cyclic designs.
AFDISCREPANCY calculates the discrepancy of a design.
AFFYMETRIX estimates expression values for Affymetrix slides.
AFIELDRESIDUALS display residuals in field layout.
AFLABELS forms a variate of unit labels for a design.
AFMEANS forms tables of means classified by ANOVA treatment factors.
AFNONLINEAR forms D-optimal designs to estimate the parameters of a nonlinear or generalized linear model.
AFORMS prints data forms for an experimental design.
AFPREP searches for an efficient partially-replicated design.
AFRCRESOLVABLE forms doubly resolvable row-column designs, with output.
AFUNITS forms a factor to index the units of the final stratum of a design.
AGALPHA forms alpha designs by standard generators for up to 100 treatments.
AGBIB generates balanced incomplete block designs.
AGBOXBEHNKEN generates Box-Behnken designs.
AGCENTRALCOMPOSITE generates central composite designs.
AGCROSSOVERLATIN generates Latin squares balanced for carry-over effects.
AGCYCLIC generates cyclic designs from standard generators.
AGDESIGN generates generally balanced designs.
AGFACTORIAL generates minimum aberration block or fractional factorial designs.
AGFRACTION generates fractional factorial designs.
AGHIERARCHICAL generates orthogonal hierarchical designs.
AGLATIN generates mutually orthogonal Latin squares.
AGLOOP generates loop designs e.g. for time-course microarray experiments.
AGMAINEFFECT generates designs to estimate main effects of two-level factors.
AGNATURALBLOCK forms 1- and 2-dimensional designs with blocks of natural size.
AGNEIGHBOUR generates neighbour-balanced designs.
AGNONORTHOGONALDESIGN generates non-orthogonal multi-stratum designs.
AGQLATIN generates complete and quasi-complete Latin squares.
AGRAPH plots tables of means from ANOVA.
AGREFERENCE generates reference-level designs e.g. for microarray experiments.
AGSEMILATIN generates semi-Latin squares.
AGSPACEFILLINGDESIGN generates space filling designs.
AGSQLATTICE generates square lattice designs.
AKAIKEHISTOGRAM prints histograms with improved definition of groups.
AKEY generates values for treatment factors using the design key method.
ALIAS finds out information about aliased model terms in analysis of variance.
ALIGNCURVE forms an optimal warping to align an observed series of observations with a standard series.
ALLDIFFERENCES shows all pairwise differences of values in a variate or table.
ALLPAIRWISE performs a range of all pairwise multiple comparison tests.
AMCOMPARISON performs pairwise multiple comparison tests for ANOVA means.
AMDUNNETT forms Dunnett’s simultaneous confidence interval around a control.
AMERGE merges extra units into an experimental design.
AMMI allows exploratory analysis of genotype × environment interactions.
AMTDISPLAY displays further output for a multi-tiered design analysed by AMTIER.
AMTIER analyses a multi-tiered design with up to 3 structures.
AMTKEEP saves information from the analysis of a multitiered design by AMTIER.
ANTMVESTIMATE estimates missing values in repeated measurements.
ANTORDER assesses order of ante-dependence for repeated measures data.
ANTTEST calculates overall tests based on a specified order of ante-dependence.
AN1ADVICE aims to give useful advice if a design that is thought to be balanced fails to be analysed by ANOVA.
AONEWAY performs one-way analysis of variance.
AOVANYHOW performs analysis of variance using ANOVA, regression or REML as appropriate.
AOVDISPLAY provides further output from an analysis by AOVANYHOW.
APERMTEST does random permutation tests for analysis-of-variance tables.
APLOT plots residuals from an ANOVA analysis.
APOLYNOMIAL forms equations for single-factor polynomial contrasts fitted by ANOVA.
APOWER calculates the power (probability of detection) for terms in an aov.
APPEND appends a list of vectors of the same type.
APRODUCT forms a new experimental design from the product of two designs.
ARANDOMIZE randomizes and prints an experimental design.
AREPMEASURES produces an analysis of variance for repeated measurements.
ARESULTSUMMARY provides a summary of results from an ANOVA analysis.
ARETRIEVE retrieves an ANOVA save structure from an external file.
ASAMPLESIZE finds the replication to detect a treatment effect or contrast.
ASCREEN performs screening tests for designs with orthogonal block structure.
ASPREADSHEET saves results from an analysis of variance in a spreadsheet.
ASTATUS provides information about the settings of ANOVA models and variates.
ASTORE stores an ANOVA save structure in an external file.
ASWEEP performs sweeps for model terms in an analysis of variance.
AUDISPLAY produces further output for an unbalanced design (after AUNBALANCED).
AUGRAPH plots tables of means from AUNBALANCED.
AUKEEP saves output from analysis of an unbalanced design (by AUNBALANCED).
AUNBALANCED performs analysis of variance for unbalanced designs.
AUMCOMPARISON performs pairwise multiple comparison tests for means from an unbalanced analysis of variance, performed previously by AUNBALANCED.
AUPREDICT forms predictions from an unbalanced design (after AUNBALANCED).
AUSPREADSHEET saves results from an analysis of an unbalanced design (by AUNBALANCED) in a spreadsheet.
AU2RDA saves results from an unbalanced analysis of variance, by AUNBALANCED, in R data frames.
AYPARALLEL does the same analysis of variance for several y-variates, and collates the output.
A2DISPLAY provides further output following an analysis of variance by A2WAY.
A2KEEP copies information from an A2WAY analysis into Genstat data structures.
A2PLOT plots effects from two-level designs with robust s.e. estimates.
A2RDA saves results from an analysis of variance in R data frames.
A2RESULTSUMMARY provides a summary of results from an analysis by A2WAY.
A2WAY performs analysis of variance of a balanced or unbalanced design with up to two treatment factors.


BACKTRANSFORM calculates back-transformed means with approximate standard errors and confidence intervals.
BAFFYMETRIX estimates expression values from an Affymetrix CED and CDF file.
BANK calculates the optimum aspect ratio for a graph.
BASELINE estimates a baseline for a series of numbers whose minimum value is drifting.
BBINOMIAL estimates the parameters of the beta binomial distribution.
BCDISPLAY displays a classification tree.
BCFDISPLAY displays information about a random classification forest.
BCFIDENTIFY identifies specimens using a random classification forest.
BCFOREST constructs a random classification forest.
BCIDENTIFY identifies specimens using a classification tree.
BCKEEP saves information from a classification tree.
BCLASSIFICATION constructs a classification tree.
BCONSTRUCT constructs a tree.
BCVALUES forms values for nodes of a classification tree.
BGIMPORT imports MCMC output in CODA format produced by WinBUGS or OpenBUGS.
BGPLOT produces plots for output and diagnostics from MCMC simulations.
BGRAPH plots a tree.
BGXGENSTAT runs WinBUGS or OpenBUGS from Genstat in batch mode using scripts.
BIPLOT produces a biplot from a set of variates.
BJESTIMATE fits an ARIMA model, with forecast and residual checks.
BJFORECAST plots forecasts of a time series using a previously fitted ARIMA.
BJIDENTIFY displays time series statistics useful for ARIMA model selection.
BKDISPLAY displays an identification key.
BKEY constructs an identification key.
BKIDENTIFY identifies specimens using a key.
BKKEEP saves information from an identification key.
BLANDALTMAN produces Bland-Altman plots to assess the agreement between two variates.
BNTEST calculates one- and two-sample binomial tests.
BOOTSTRAP produces bootstrapped estimates, standard errors and distributions.
BOXPLOT draws box-and-whisker diagrams or schematic plots.
BPRINT displays a tree.
BPRUNE prunes a tree using minimal cost complexity.
BRDISPLAY displays a regression key.
BREGRESSION constructs a regression tree.
BRFDISPLAY displays information about a random regression forest.
BRFOREST constructs a random regression forest.
BRFPREDICT makes predictions using a random regression forest.
BRKEEP saves information from a regression tree.
BRPREDICT makes predictions using a regression tree.
BRVALUES forms values for nodes of a regression tree.


CABIPLOT plots results from correspondence analysis or multiple correspondence analysis.
CANCORRELATION does canonical correlation analysis.
CASSOCIATION calculates measures of association for circular data.
CATRENDTEST calculates the Cochran-Armitage chi-square test for trend.
CCA performs canonical correspondence analysis.
CCOMPARE tests whether samples from circular distributions have a common mean direction or have identical distributions.
CDESCRIBE calculates summary statistics and tests of circular data.
CDNAUGMENTEDDESIGN constructs an augmented block design, using CycDesigN if the controls are in an incomplete-block design.
CDNBLOCKDESIGN constructs a block design using CycDesigN.
CDNPREP constructs a multi-location partially-replicated design using CycDesigN.
CDNROWCOLUMNDESIGN constructs a row-column design using CycDesigN.
CENSOR pre-processes censored data before analysis by ANOVA.
CHECKARGUMENT checks the arguments of a procedure.
CHIPERMTEST performs a random permutation test for a two-dimensional contingency table.
CHISQUARE calculates chi-square statistics for one- and two-way tables.
CINTERACTION clusters rows and columns of a two-way interaction table.
CLASSIFY obtains a starting classification for non-hierarchical clustering.
CMHTEST performs the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test.
CONCORD is a synonym for KCONCORDANCE.
CONFIDENCE calculates simultaneous confidence intervals.
CONVEXHULL finds the points of a single or a full peel of convex hulls.
CORANALYSIS does correspondence analysis, or reciprocal averaging.
CORRESP is a synonym for CORANALYSIS.
COVDESIGN produces experimental designs efficient under analysis of covariance.
CRBIPLOT plots correlation or distance biplots after RDA, or ranking biplots after CCA.
CRTRIPLOT plots ordination biplots or triplots after CCA or RDA.
CSPRO reads a data set from a CSPro survey data file and dictionary, and loads it into Genstat or puts it into a spreadsheet file.
CUMDISTRIBUTION fits frequency distributions to accumulated counts.
CVAPLOT plots the mean and unit scores from a canonical variates analysis.
CVASCORES calculates scores for individual units in canonical variates analysis.


DAYLENGTH calculates daylengths at a given period of the year.
DARROW adds arrows to an existing plot.
DBARCHART produces bar charts for one or two-way tables.
DBCOMMAND runs an SQL command on an ODBC database.
DBEXPORT updates an ODBC database table using data from Genstat.
DBIMPORT loads data into Genstat from an ODBC database.
DBINFORMATION loads information on the tables and columns in an ODBC database.
DBIPLOT plots a biplot from an analysis by PCP, CVA or PCO.
DCIRCULAR plots circular data.
DCLUSTERLABELS labels clusters in a single-page dendrogram plotted by DDENDROGRAM.
DCOLOURS forms a band of graduated colours for graphics.
DCOMPOSITIONAL plots 3-part compositional data within a barycentric triangle.
DCORRELATION plots a correlation matrix.
DCOVARIOGRAM plots 2-dimensional auto- and cross-variograms.
DDEEXPORT sends data or commands to a Dynamic Data Exchange server.
DDEIMPORT gets data from a Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) server.
DDENDROGRAM draws dendrograms with control over structure and style.
DDESIGN plots the plan of an experimental design.
DECIMALS sets the number of decimals for a structure, using its round-off.
DEMC performs Bayesian computing using the Differential Evolution Markov Chain algorithm.
DERRORBAR adds error bars to a graph.
DESCRIBE saves and/or prints summary statistics for variates.
DESIGN helps to select and generate effective experimental designs.
DFOURIER performs a harmonic analysis of a univariate time series.
DFRTEXT adds text to a graphics frame.
DFUNCTION plots a function.
DHELP provides information about Genstat graphics.
DHSCATTERGRAM plots an h-scattergram.
DIALLEL analyses full and half diallel tables with parents.
DILUTION calculates Most Probable Numbers from dilution series data.
DIRECTORY prints or saves a list of files with names matching a specified mask.
DISCRIMINATE performs discriminant analysis.
DKALMAN plots results from an analysis by KALMAN.
DKEY adds a key to a graph.
DKSTPLOT produces diagnostic plots for space-time clustering.
DMADENSITY plots the empirical CDF or PDF (kernel smoothed) by groups.
DMASS plots discrete data like mass spectra, discrete probability functions.
DMSCATTER produces a scatter-plot matrix for one or two sets of variables.
DMST gives a high resolution plot of an ordination with minimum spanning tree.
DOTPLOT produces a dot-plot using line-printer or high-resolution graphics.
DOTHISTOGRAM plots dot histograms.
DPARALLEL displays multivariate data using parallel coordinates.
DPOLYGON draws polygons using high-resolution graphics.
DPROBABILITY plots probability distributions, and estimates their parameters.
DPSPECTRALPLOT calculates an estimate of the spectrum of a spatial point pattern.
DPTMAP draws maps for spatial point patterns using high-resolution graphics.
DPTREAD adds points interactively to a spatial point pattern.
DQMAP displays a genetic map.
DQMKSCORES plots a grid of marker scores for genotypes and indicates missing data.
DQMQTLSCAN plots the results of a genome-wide scan for QTL effects in multi-environment trials.
DQRECOMBINATIONS plots a matrix of recombination frequencies between markers.
DQSQTLSCAN plots the results of a genome-wide scan for QTL effects in single-environment trials.
DREFERENCELINE adds reference lines to a graph.
DRESIDUALS plots residuals.
DREPMEASURES plots profiles and differences of profiles for repeated measures data.
DRPOLYGON reads a polygon interactively from the current graphics device.
DSCATTER produces a scatter-plot matrix using high-resolution graphics.
DSEPARATIONPLOT creates a separation plot for visualising the fit of a model with a dichotomous (i.e. binary) or polytomous (i.e. multi-categorical) outcome.
DSPIDERWEB displays spider-web and star plots.
DSTTEST plots power and significance for t-tests, including equivalence tests.
DTABLE plots tables.
DTEXT adds text to a graph.
DTIMEPLOT produces horizontal bars displaying a continuous time record.
DVARIOGRAM plots fitted models to an experimental variogram.
DXDENSITY produces one-dimensional density (or violin) plots.
DXYDENSITY produces density plots for large data sets.
DXYGRAPH draws two-dimensional graphs with marginal distribution plots alongside the y- and x-axes.
DYPOLAR produces polar plots.


ECABUNDANCEPLOT produces rank/abundance, ABC and k-dominance plots.
ECACCUMULATION plots species accumulation curves for samples or individuals.
ECANOSIM performs an analysis of similarities (ANOSIM).
ECDIVERSITY calculates measures of diversity with jackknife or bootstrap estimates.
ECFIT fits models to species abundance data.
ECNICHE generates relative abundance of species for niche-based models.
ECNPESTIMATE calculates nonparametric estimates of species richness.
ECRAREFACTION calculates individual or sample-based rarefaction.
EDDUNNETT calculates equivalent deviates for Dunnett’s simultaneous confidence interval around a control.
EDFTEST performs empirical-distribution-function goodness-of-fit tests.
EXAMPLE obtains and runs a Genstat example program.
EXPORT outputs data structures in foreign file formats, including Excel, Quattro, dBase, SPlus, Gauss, MatLab and Instat, or as plain or comma-delimited text.
EXTRABINOMIAL fits the models of Williams (1982) to overdispersed proportions.


FACAMEND permutes the levels and labels of a factor.
FACCOMBINATIONS forms a factor to indicate observations with identical combinations of values of a set of variates, texts or factors.
FACDIVIDE represents a factor by factorial combinations of a set of factors.
FACEXCLUDEUNUSED redefines the levels and labels of a factor to exclude those that are unused.
FACLEVSTANDARDIZE standardizes the levels or labels of a list of factors.
FACMERGE merges levels of factors.
FACPRODUCT forms a factor with a level for every combination of other factors.
FACSORT sorts the levels of a factor according to an index vector.
FACUNIQUE redefines a factor so that its levels and labels are unique.
FALIASTERMS forms information about aliased model terms in analysis of variance.
FBASICCONTRASTS breaks a model term down into its basic contrasts.
FBETWEENGROUPVECTORS forms variates and classifying factors containing within-group summaries to use e.g. in a between-group analysis.
FCOMPLEMENT forms the complement of an incomplete block design.
FCONTRASTS modifies a model formula to contain contrasts of factors.
FCORRELATION forms the correlation matrix for a list of variates.
FDESIGNFILE forms a backing-store file of information for AGDESIGN.
FDIALLEL forms the components of a diallel model for REML or regression.
FDISTINCTFACTORS checks sets of factors to remove any that define duplicate classifications.
FDRBONFERRONI estimates false discovery rates by a Bonferroni-type procedure.
FDRMIXTURE estimates false discovery rates using mixture distributions.
FEXACT2X2 does Fisher’s exact test for 2×2 tables.
FFRAME forms multiple windows in a plot-matrix for high-resolution graphics.
FFREERESPONSEFACTOR forms multiple-response factors from free-response data.
FHADAMARDMATRIX forms Hadamard matrices.
FHAT calculates an estimate of the F nearest-neighbour distribution function.
FIELLER calculates effective doses or relative potencies.
FILEREAD reads data from a file.
FITINDIVIDUALLY fits regression models one term at a time.
FITMULTINOMIAL fits generalized linear models with multinomial distribution.
FITSCHNUTE is a synonym for RSCHNUTE.
FMEGAENVIRONMENTS forms mega-environments based on winning genotypes from an AMMI-2 model.
FMFACTORS forms a pointer of factors representing a multiple-response.
FNCORRELATION calculates correlations from variances and covariances, together with their variances and covariances.
FNLINEAR estimates linear functions of random variables, and calculates their variances and covariances.
FNPOWER estimates products of powers of two random variables, and calculates their variances and covariances.
FOCCURRENCES counts how often each pair of treatments occurs in the same block.
FPARETOSET forms the Pareto optimal set of non-dominated groups.
FFPLOTNUMBER forms plot numbers for a row-by-column design.
FPROJECTIONMATRIX forms a projection matrix for a set of model terms.
FREGULAR expands vectors onto a regular two-dimensional grid.
FRESTRICTEDSET forms vectors with the restricted subset of a list of vectors.
FRIEDMAN performs Friedman’s non-parametric analysis of variance.
FROWCANONICALMATRIX puts a matrix into row canonical, or reduced row echelon, form.
FRTPRODUCTDESIGNMATRIX forms summation, or relationship, matrices for model terms.
FSPREADSHEET creates a Genstat Spreadsheet file (GSH) from specified data structures.
FSTRING forms a single string from a list of strings in a text.
FTEXT forms a text structure from a variate.
FUNIQUEVALUES redefines a variate or text so that its values are unique.
FVCOVARIANCE forms the variance-covariance matrix for a list of variates.
FVSTRING forms a string listing the identifiers of a set of data structures.
FZERO gives the F function expectation under complete spatial randomness.
F2DRESIDUALVARIOGRAM calculates and plots a 2-dimensional variogram from a 2-dimensional array of residuals.


GALOIS forms addition and multiplication tables for a Galois finite field.
GBGRIDCONVERSION converts GB grid references to or from latitudes and longitudes or to or from UTM coordinates.
GEE fits models to longitudinal data by generalized estimating equations.
GENPROCRUSTES performs a generalized Procrustes analysis.
GESTABILITY calculates stability coefficients for genotype-by-environment data.
GETNAME forms the name of a structure according to its IPRINT attribute.
GETRGB gets the RGB values of the standard graphics colours.
GGEBIPLOT plots displays to assess genotype+genotype-by-environment variation.
GHAT calculates an estimate of the G nearest-neighbour distribution function.
GINVERSE calculates the generalized inverse of a matrix.
GLM analyses non-standard generalized linear models.
GLMM fits a generalized linear mixed model.
GPREDICTION produces genomic predictions (breeding values) using phenotypic and molecular marker information.
GRANDOM generates pseudo-random numbers from probability distributions.
GRCSR generates completely spatially random points in a polygon.
GREJECTIONSAMPLE generates random samples using rejection sampling.
GRIBIMPORT reads data from a GRIB2 meteorological data file, and loads it or converts it to a spreadsheet file.
GRLABEL randomly labels two or more spatial point patterns.
GRMNOMIAL generates multinomial pseudo-random numbers.
GRMULTINORMAL generates multivariate normal pseudo-random numbers.
GRTHIN randomly thins a spatial point pattern.
GRTORSHIFT performs a random toroidal shift on a spatial point pattern.
GSTATISTIC calculates the gamma statistic of agreement for ordinal data.
G2AEXPORT forms a dbase file to transfer ANOVA output to Agronomix Generation II.
G2AFACTORS redefines block and treatment variables as factors.
G2VEXPORT forms a dbase file to transfer REML output to Agronomix Generation II.


HANOVA does hierarchical analysis of variance or covariance for unbalanced data.
HBOOSTRAP performs bootstrap analyses to assess the reliability of clusters from hierarchical cluster analysis.
HCOMPAREGROUPINGS compares groupings generated, for example, from cluster analyses.
HEATUNITS calculates accumulated heat units of a temperature dependent process.
HFAMALGAMATIONS forms an amalgamations matrix from a minimum spanning tree.
HFCLUSTERS forms a set of clusters from an amalgamations matrix.
HPCLUSTERS prints a set of clusters.
HGANALYSE analyses data using a hierarchical or double hierarchical generalized linear model.
HGDISPLAY displays results from a hierarchical or double hierarchical generalized linear model.
HGDRANDOMMODEL defines the random model in a hierarchical generalized linear model for the dispersion model of a double hierarchical generalized linear model.
HGFIXEDMODEL defines the fixed model for a hierarchical or double hierarchical generalized linear model.
HGFTEST calculates likelihood tests for fixed terms in a hierarchical generalized linear model
HGGRAPH draws a graph to display the fit of an HGLM or DHGLM analysis.
HGKEEP saves information from a hierarchical or double hierarchical generalized linear model analysis.
HGNONLINEAR defines nonlinear parameters for the fixed model of a hierarchical generalized linear model.
HGPLOT produces model-checking plots for a hierarchical or double hierarchical generalized linear model.
HGPREDICT forms predictions from a hierarchical or double hierarchical generalized linear model.
HGRANDOMMODEL defines the random model for a hierarchical or double hierarchical generalized linear model.
HGRTEST calculates likelihood tests for random terms in a hierarchical generalized linear model.
HGSTATUS displays the current HGLM model definitions.
HGWALD prints or saves Wald tests for fixed terms in an HGLM.


IDENTIFY identifies an unknown specimen from a defined set of objects.
IFUNCTION estimates implicit and/or explicit functions of parameters.
IMPORT reads data from a foreign file format and loads it or converts it to a spreadsheet file.
INSIDE determines whether points lie within a specified polygon.


JACKKNIFE produces Jackknife estimates and standard errors.
JOIN joins or merges two sets of vectors together, based on classifying keys.


KALMAN calculates estimates from the Kalman filter.
KAPLANMEIER calculates the Kaplan-Meier estimate of the survivor function.
KAPPA calculates a kappa coefficient of agreement for nominally scaled data.
KCONCORDANCE calculates Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance.
KCROSSVALIDATION computes cross validation statistics for punctual kriging.
KCSRENVELOPES simulates K function bounds under complete spatial randomness.
KERNELDENSITY uses kernel density estimation to estimate a sample density.
KHAT calculates an estimate of the K function.
KLABENVELOPES gives bounds for K function differences under random labelling.
KNEARESTNEIGHBOURS classifies items or predicts their responses by examining their k nearest neighbours.
KOLMOG2 performs a Kolmogorov-Smirnoff two-sample test.
KRUSKAL carries out a Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance.
KSED calculates the standard error for K function differences under random labelling.
KSTHAT calculates an estimate of the K function in space, time and space-time.
KSTMCTEST performs a Monte-Carlo test for space-time interaction.
KSTSE calculates the standard error for the space-time K function.
KTAU calculates Kendall’s rank correlation coefficient τ.
KTORENVELOPES gives bounds for the bivariate K function under independence.
K12HAT calculates an estimate of the bivariate K function.


LCONCORDANCE calculates Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient.
LIBEXAMPLE accesses examples and source code of library procedures.
LIBFILENAME supplies the names of information files for library procedures.
LIBHELP provides help information about library procedures.
LIBSOURCE obtains the source code of a Genstat procedure.
LIBVERSION provides the name of the current Genstat Procedure Library.
LINDEPENDENCE finds the linear relations associated with matrix singularities.
LORENZ plots the Lorenz curve and calculates the Gini and asymmetry coefficients.
LRIDGE does logistic ridge regression.
LRVSCREE prints a scree diagram and/or a difference table of latent roots.
LSIPLOT plots least significant intervals, saved from SEDLSI.
LSPLINE calculates design matrices to fit a natural polynomial or trigonometric L-spline as a linear mixed model.
LVARMODEL analyses a field trial using the Linear Variance Neighbour model.


MAANOVA does analysis of variance for a single-channel microarray design.
MABGCORRECT performs background correction of Affymetrix slides.
MACALCULATE corrects and transforms two-colour microarray differential expressions.
MADESIGN assesses the efficiency of a two-colour microarray design.
MAEBAYES modifies t-values by an empirical Bayes method.
MAESTIMATE estimates treatment effects from a two-colour microarray design.
MAHISTOGRAM plots histograms of microarray data.
MANNWHITNEY performs a Mann-Whitney U test.
MANOVA performs multivariate analysis of variance and covariance.
MANTEL assesses the association between similarity matrices.
MAPCLUSTER clusters probes or genes with microarray data.
MAPLOT produces two-dimensional plots of microarray data.
MAREGRESSION does regressions for single-channel microarray data.
MARMA calculates Affymetrix expression values.
MAROBUSTMEANS does a robust means analysis for Affymetrix slides.
MASCLUSTER clusters microarray slides.
MASHADE produces shade plots to display spatial variation of microarray data.
MAVDIFFERENCE applies the average difference algorithm to Affymetrix data.
MAVOLCANO produces volcano plots of microarray data.
MA2CLUSTER performs a two-way clustering of microarray data by probes (or genes) and slides.
MCNEMAR performs McNemar’s test for the significance of changes.
MCOMPARISON performs pairwise multiple comparison tests within a table of means.
MCORANALYSIS does multiple correspondence analysis.
MCROSSPECTRUM performs a spectral analysis of a multiple time series.
MC1PSTATIONARY gives the stationary probabilities for a 1st-order Markov chain.
MEDIANTETRAD gives robust identification of multiple outliers in 2-way tables.
META combines estimates from individual trials.
MICHAELISMENTEN fits the Michaelis-Menten equation for substrate concentration versus time data.
MINFIELDWIDTH calculates minimum field widths for printing data structures.
MINIMIZE finds the minimum of a function calculated by a procedure.
MIN1DIMENSION finds the minimum of a function in one dimension.
MMPREDICT predicts the Michaelis-Menten curve for a particular set of parameter values.
MNORMALIZE normalizes two-colour microarray data.
MOVINGAVERAGE calculates and plots the moving average of a time series.
MPOLISH performs a median polish of two-way data.
MPOWER forms integer powers of a square matrix.
MTABULATE forms tables classified by multiple-response factors.
MULTMISSING estimates missing values for units in a multivariate data set.
MSEKERNEL2D estimates the mean square error for a kernel smoothing.
MVAOD does an analysis of distance of multivariate data.
MVARIOGRAM fits models to an experimental variogram.
MVFILL replaces missing values in a vector with the previous non-missing value.


NCONVERT converts integers between base 10 and other bases.
NCSPLINE calculates natural cubic spline basis functions (for use e.g. in REML).
NLAR1 fits curves with an AR1 or a power-distance correlation model.
NLCONTRASTS fits nonlinear contrasts to quantitative factors in ANOVA.
NORMTEST performs tests of univariate and/or multivariate Normality.
NOTICE provides news and other information about Genstat.


OPLS performs orthogonal partial least squares regression.
ORTHPOLYNOMIAL calculates orthogonal polynomials.


PAIRTEST performs t-tests for pairwise differences.
PARTIALCORRELATIONS calculates partial correlations for a list of variates.
PCOPROCRUSTES performs a multiple Procrustes analysis.
PDESIGN prints or stores treatment combinations tabulated by the block factors.
PDUPLICATE duplicates a pointer, with all its components.
PEAKFINDER finds the locations of peaks in an observed series.
PENSPLINE calculates design matrices to fit a penalized spline as a linear mixed model.
PERCENT expresses the body of a table as percentages of one of its margins.
PERIODTEST gives periodogram-based tests for white noise in time series.
PERMUTE forms all possible permutations of the integers 1…n.
PFACLEVELS prints levels and labels of factors.
PLINK prints a link to a graphics file into an HTML file.
PLS fits a partial least squares regression model.
PNTEST calculates one- and two-sample Poisson tests.
POSSEMIDEFINITE calculates a positive semi-definite approximation of a non-positive semi-definite symmetric matrix.
PPAIR displays results of t-tests for pairwise differences in compact diagrams.
PRCORRELATION calculates probabilities for product moment correlations.
PRDOUBLEPOISSON calculates the probability density for the double Poisson distribution.
PREWHITEN filters a time series before spectral analysis.
PRIMEPOWER decomposes a positive integer into its constituent prime powers.
PRKTAU calculates probabilities for Kendall’s rank correlation coefficient τ.
PRMANNWHITNEYU calculates probabilities for the Mann-Whitney U statistic.
PROBITANALYSIS fits probit models allowing for natural mortality and immunity.
PRSPEARMAN calculates probabilities for Spearman’s rank correlation statistic.
PRWILCOXON calculates probabilities for the Wilcoxon signed-rank statistic.
PSPLINE calculates design matrices to fit a P-spline as a linear mixed model.
PTAREAPOLYGON calculates the area of a polygon.
PTBOX generates a bounding or surrounding box for a spatial point pattern.
PTCLOSEPOLYGON closes open polygons.
PTDESCRIBE gives summary and second order statistics for a point process.
PTGRID generates a grid of points in a polygon.
PTINTENSITY calculates the overall density for a spatial point pattern.
PTKERNEL2D performs kernel smoothing of a spatial point pattern.
PTK3D performs kernel smoothing of space-time data.
PTREMOVE removes points interactively from a spatial point pattern.
PTROTATE rotates a point pattern.
PTSINPOLYGON returns points inside or outside a polygon.


QBESTGENOTYPES sorts individuals of a segregating population by their genetic similarity with a target genotype, using the identity by descent (IBD) information at QTL positions.
QCANDIDATES selects QTLs on the basis of a test statistic profile along the genome.
QCOCHRAN performs Cochran’s Q test for differences between related-samples.
QDESCRIBE calculates descriptive statistics of molecular markers.
QDISCRIMINATE performs quadratic discrimination between groups i.e. allowing for different variance-covariance matrices.
QEIGENANALYSIS uses principal components analysis and the Tracy-Widom statistic to find the number of significant principal components to represent a set of variables.
QEXPORT exports genotypic data for QTL analysis.
QFACTOR allows the user to decide to convert texts or variates to factors.
QFLAPJACK creates a Flapjack project file from genotypic and phenotypic data.
QGSELECT obtains a representative selection of genotypes by means of genetic distance sampling or genetic distance optimization.
QIBDPROBABILITIES reads molecular marker data and calculates IBD probabilities.
QIMPORT imports genotypic and phenotypic data for QTL analysis.
QKINSHIPMATRIX forms a kinship matrix from molecular markers.
QLDDECAY estimates linkage disequilibrium (LD) decay along a chromosome.
QLINKAGEGROUPS forms linkage groups using marker data from experimental populations.
QLIST gets the user to select a response interactively from a list.
QMAP constructs genetic linkage maps using marker data from experimental populations.
QMASSOCIATION performs multi-environment marker-trait association analysis in a genetically diverse population using bi-allelic and multi-allelic markers.
QMATCH matches different data structures to be used in QTL estimation.
QMBACKSELECT performs a QTL backward selection for loci in multi-environment trials or multiple populations.
QMESTIMATE calculates QTL effects in multi-environment trials or multiple populations.
QMKDIAGNOSTICS generates descriptive statistics and diagnostic plots of molecular marker data.
QMKRECODE recodes marker scores into separate alleles.
QMKSELECT obtains a representative selection of markers by means of genetic distance sampling or genetic distance optimization.
QMQTLSCAN performs a genome-wide scan for QTL effects (Simple and Composite Interval Mapping) in multi-environment trials or multiple populations.
QMTBACKSELECT performs a QTL backward selection for loci in multi-trait trials.
QMTESTIMATE calculates QTL effects in multi-trait trials.
QMTQTLSCAN performs a genome-wide scan for QTL effects (Simple and Composite Interval Mapping) in multi-trait trials.
QMVAF calculates percentage variance accounted for by QTL effects in a multi-environment analysis.
QMVESTIMATE replaces missing molecular marker scores using conditional genotypic probabilities.
QMVREPLACE replaces missing marker scores with the mode scores of the most similar genotypes.
QNORMALIZE performs quantile normalization.
QRECOMBINATIONS calculates the expected numbers of recombinations and the recombination frequencies between markers.
QREPORT creates an HTML report from QTL linkage or association analysis results.
QSASSOCIATION performs marker-trait association analysis in a genetically diverse population using bi-allelic and multi-allelic markers.
QSBACKSELECT performs a QTL backward selection for loci in single-environment trials.
QSELECTIONINDEX calculates (molecular) selection indexes by using phenotypic information and/or molecular scores of multiple traits.
QSESTIMATE calculates QTL effects in single-environment trials.
QSIMULATE simulates marker data and QTL effects for single and multiple environment trials.
QSQTLSCAN performs a genome-wide scan for QTL effects (Simple and Composite Interval Mapping) in single-environment trials.
QTHRESHOLD calculates a threshold to identify a significant QTL.
QUANTILE calculates quantiles of the values in a variate.
QUESTION obtains a response using a Genstat menu.


RADIALSPLINE calculates design matrices to fit a radial-spline surface as a linear mixed model.
RANK produces ranks, from the values in a variate, allowing for ties.
RAR1 fits regressions with an AR1 or a power-distance correlation model.
RBRADLEYTERRY fits the Bradley-Terry model for paired-comparison preference tests.
RCATENELSON performs a Cate-Nelson graphical analysis of bivariate data.
RCHECK checks the fit of a linear or generalized linear regression.
RCIRCULAR does circular regression of mean direction for an angular response.
RCOMPARISONS calculates comparison contrasts amongst regression means.
RDA performs redundancy analysis.
RDESTIMATES plots one- or two-way tables of regression estimates.
REPPERIODOGRAM gives periodogram-based analyses for replicated time series.
RFINLAYWILKINSON performs Finlay and Wilkinson’s joint regression analysis of genotype-by-environment data.
RGRAPH draws a graph to display the fit of a regression model.
RIDGE produces ridge regression and principal component regression analyses.
RJOINT does modified joint regression analysis for variety-by-environment data.
RLASSO performs lasso using iteratively reweighted least-squares.
RLFUNCTIONAL fits a linear functional relationship model.
RLIFETABLE calculates the life-table estimate of the survivor function.
RMGLM fits a model where different units follow different generalized linear models.
RMULTIVARIATE performs multivariate linear regression with accumulated tests.
RNEGBINOMIAL fits a negative binomial generalized linear model estimating the aggregation parameter.
RNONNEGATIVE fits a generalized linear model with nonnegativity constraints.
ROBSSPM forms robust estimates of sum-of-squares-and-products matrices.
RPAIR gives t-tests for all pairwise differences of means from a regression or generalized linear model.
RPARALLEL carries out analysis of parallelism for nonlinear functions.
RPERMTEST does random permutation tests for regression or generalized-linear-model analyses.
RPHCHANGE modifies a proportional hazards model fitted by RPHFIT.
RPHDISPLAY prints output for a proportional hazards model fitted by RPHFIT.
RPHFIT fits the proportional hazards model to survival data as a generalized linear model.
RPHKEEP saves information from a proportional hazards model fitted by RPHFIT.
RPHVECTORS forms vectors for fitting proportional hazards data as a generalized linear model.
RPOWER calculates the power (probability of detection) for regression models.
RPROPORTIONAL fits the proportional hazards model to survival data as a generalized linear model.
RQLINEAR fits and plots quantile regressions for linear models.
RQNONLINEAR fits and plots quantile regressions for nonlinear models.
RQSMOOTH fits and plots quantile regressions for loess or spline models.
RQUADRATIC fits a quadratic surface and estimates its stationary point.
RRETRIEVE retrieves a regression save structure from an external file.
RSCHNUTE fits a general 4 parameter growth model to a non-decreasing Y-variate.
RSCREEN performs screening tests for generalized or multivariate linear models.
RSEARCH helps search through models for a regression or generalized linear model.
RSPREADSHEET puts results from a regression, generalized linear or nonlinear model into Genstat spreadsheets.
RSTEST compares groups of right-censored survival data by nonparametric tests.
RSTORE stores a regression save structure in an external file.
RSURVIVAL models survival times of exponential, Weibull, extreme-value, log-logistic or lognormal distributions.
RTCOMPARISONS calculates comparison contrasts within a multi-way table of means.
RUGPLOT draws “rugplots” to display the distribution of one or more samples.
RUNTEST performs a test of randomness of a sequence of observations.
RWALD calculates Wald and F tests for dropping terms from a regression.
RXGENSTAT submits a set of commands externally to R and reads the output.
RYPARALLEL fits the same regression model to several response variates, and collates the output.
R0INFLATED fits zero-inflated regression models to count data with excess zeros.
R0KEEP saves information from a zero-inflated regression model for count data with excess zeros fitted by R0INFLATED.
R2LINES fits two-straight-line (broken-stick) models to data.


SAGRAPES produces statistics and graphs for checking sensory panel performance.
SAMPLE samples from a set of units, possibly stratified by factors.
SBNTEST calculates the sample size for binomial tests.
SCORRELATION calculates the sample size to detect specified correlations.
SDISCRIMINATE selects the best set of variates to discriminate between groups.
SEDLSI calculates least significant intervals.
SED2ESE calculates effective standard errors that give good approximate sed’s.
SETDEVICE opens a graphical file and specifies the device number on basis of its extension.
SETNAME sets the identifier of a data structure to be one specified in a text.
SIGNTEST performs a one or two sample sign test.
SIMPLEX searches for the minimum of a function using the Nelder-Mead algorithm.
SKEWSYMMETRY provides an analysis of skew-symmetry for an asymmetric matrix.
SLCONCORDANCE calculates the sample size for Lin’s concordance coefficient.
SMANNWHITNEY calculates sample sizes for the Mann-Whitney test.
SMCNEMAR calculates sample sizes for McNemar’s test.
SMOOTHSPECTRUM forms smoothed spectrum estimates for univariate time series.
SOM declares a self-organizing map.
SOMADJUST performs adjustments to the weights of a self-organizing map.
SOMDESCRIBE summarizes values of variables at nodes of a self-organizing map.
SOMESTIMATE estimates the weights for self-organizing maps.
SOMIDENTIFY allocates samples to nodes of a self-organizing map.
SOMPREDICT makes predictions using a self-organizing map.
SPCAPABILITY calculates capability statistics.
SPCCHART plots c or u charts representing numbers of defective items.
SPCOMBINE combines spreadsheet and data files, without reading them into Genstat.
SPCUSUM prints CUSUM tables for controlling a process mean.
SPEARMAN calculates Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient.
SPEWMA plots exponentially weighted moving-average control charts.
SPLINE calculates a set of basis functions for M-, B- or I-splines.
SPNTEST calculates the sample size for a Poisson test.
SPPCHART plots p or np charts for binomial testing for defective items.
SPRECISION calculates the sample size to obtain a specified precision.
SPSHEWHART plots control charts for mean and standard deviation or range.
SPSYNTAX puts details about the syntax of commands into a spreadsheet.
SSIGNTEST calculates the sample size for a sign test.
STACK combines several data sets by “stacking” the corresponding vectors.
STANDARDIZE standardizes columns of a data matrix to have mean zero and variance one.
STEEL performs Steel’s many-one rank test.
STEM produces a simple stem-and-leaf chart.
STTEST calculates the sample size for t-tests (including equivalence tests).
SUBSET forms vectors containing subsets of the values in other vectors.
SVBOOT bootstraps data from random surveys.
SVCALIBRATE performs generalized calibration of survey data.
SVGLM fits generalized linear models to survey data.
SVHOTDECK performs hot-deck and model-based imputation for survey data.
SVMERGE merges strata prior to survey analysis.
SVMFIT fits a support vector machine.
SVMPREDICT forms the predictions using a support vector machine.
SVREWEIGHT modifies survey weights, adjusting other weights to ensure that their overall sum remains unchanged.
SVSAMPLE constructs stratified random samples.
SVSTRATIFIED analyses stratified random surveys by expansion or ratio raising.
SVTABULATE tabulates data from random surveys, including multistage surveys and surveys with unequal probabilities of selection.
SVWEIGHT forms survey weights.


TABINSERT inserts the contents of a sub-table into a table.
TABMODE forms summary tables of modes of values.
TABSORT sorts tables so their margins are in ascending or descending order.
TABTABLE opens a tabbed-table spreadsheet in the Genstat client.
TALLY forms a simple tally table of the distinct values in a vector.
TCOMBINE combines several tables into a single table.
TENSORSPLINE calculates design matrices to fit a tensor-spline surface as a linear mixed model.
THINPLATE calculates the basis functions for thin-plate splines.
TRELLIS does a trellis plot.
TTEST performs a one- or two-sample t-test.
TUKEYBIWEIGHT estimates means using the Tukey biweight algorithm.
TVARMA fits a vector autoregressive moving average (VARMA) model.
TVFORECAST forecasts future values from a vector autoregressive moving average (VARMA) model.
TVGRAPH plots a vector autoregressive moving average (VARMA) model.
TXPAD pads strings of a text structure with extra characters so that their lengths are equal.
TXPROGRESSION forms a text containing a progression of strings.
TXSPLIT splits a text into individual texts, at positions on each line marked by separator character(s).
T%CONTROL expresses tables as percentages of control cells.


UNSTACK splits vectors into individual vectors according to levels of a factor.
UTMCONVERSION converts between geographical latitude and longitude coordinates and UTM eastings and northings.


VABLOCKDESIGN analyses an incomplete-block design by REML, allowing automatic selection of random and spatial covariance models.
VAIC calculates the Akaike and Schwarz (Bayesian) information coefficients for REML.
VALINEBYTESTER provides combinabilities and deviances for a line-by-tester trial analysed by VABLOCKDESIGN or VAROWCOLUMNDESIGN.
VALLSUBSETS fits all subsets of the fixed terms in a REML analysis.
VAMETA performs a REML meta analysis of a series of trials.
VAOPTIONS defines options for the fitting of models by VARANDOM and associated procedures.
VARANDOM finds the best REML random model from a set of models defined by VFMODEL.
VARECOVER recovers when REML, is unable to fit a model, by simplifying the random model.
VAROWCOLUMNDESIGN analyses a row-and-column design by REML, with automatic selection of the best random and spatial covariance model.
VASDISPLAY displays further output from an analysis by VASERIES.
VASERIES analyses a series of trials with incomplete-block or row-and-column designs by REML, automatically selecting the best random models.
VASKEEP copies information from an analysis by VASERIES into Genstat data structures.
VASMEANS saves experiment × treatment means from analysis of a series of trials by VASERIES.
VAYPARALLEL does the same REML analysis for several y-variates, and collates the output.
VBOOTSTRAP performs a parametric bootstrap of the fixed effects in a REML analysis.
VCHECK checks standardized residuals from a REML analysis.
VCRITICAL uses a parametric bootstrap to estimate critical values for a fixed term in a REML analysis.
VDEFFECTS plots one- or two-way tables of effects estimated in a REML analysis.
VDFIELDRESIDUALS display residuals from a REML analysis in field layout.
VEQUATE equates values across a set of data structures.
VFIXEDTESTS saves fixed tests from a REML analysis.
VFLC performs an F-test of random effects in a linear mixed model based on linear combinations of the responses, i.e. an FLC test.
VFMODEL forms a model-definition structure for a REML analysis.
VFPEDIGREE checks and prepares pedigree information from several factors, for use by VPEDIGREE and REML.
VFRESIDUALS obtains residuals, fitted values and their standard errors from a REML analysis.
VFSTRUCTURE adds a covariance-structure definition to a REML model-definition structure.
VFUNCTION calculates functions of variance components from a REML analysis.
VGESELECT selects the best variance-covariance model for a set of environments.
VGRAPH plots tables of means from REML.
VHERITABILITY calculates generalized heritability for a random term in a REML analysis.
VHOMOGENEITY tests homogeneity of variances and variance-covariance matrices.
VINTERPOLATE performs linear & inverse linear interpolation between variates.
VLINEBYTESTER analyses a line-by-tester trial by REML.
VLSD prints approximate least significant differences for REML means.
VMATRIX copies values and row/column labels from a matrix to variates or texts.
VMCOMPARISON performs pairwise comparisons between REML means.
VMETA performs a multi-treatment meta analysis using summary results from individual experiments.
VMODEL specifies the model for a REML analysis using a model-definition structure defined by VFMODEL.
VNEARESTNEIGHBOUR analyses a field trial using nearest neighbour analysis.
VORTHPOLYNOMIAL calculates orthogonal polynomials over time for repeated measures.
VPLOT plots residuals from a REML analysis.
VPOWER uses a parametric bootstrap to estimate the power (probability of detection) for terms in a REML analysis.
VRACCUMULATE forms a summary accumulating the results of a sequence of REML random models.
VRADD adds terms from a REML fixed model into a Genstat regression.
VRCHECK checks effects of a random term in a REML analysis.
VRDISPLAY displays output for a REML fixed model fitted in a Genstat regression.
VRDROP drops terms in a REML fixed model from a Genstat regression.
VREGRESS performs regression across variates.
VRFIT fits terms from a REML fixed model in a Genstat regression.
VRKEEP saves output for a REML fixed model fitted in a Genstat regression.
VRMETAMODEL forms the random model for a REML meta analysis.
VRPERMTEST performs permutation tests for random terms in REML analysis.
VRSETUP sets up Genstat regression to assess terms from a REML fixed model.
VRSWITCH adds or drops terms from a REML fixed model in a Genstat regression.
VRTRY tries the effect of adding and dropping individual terms from a REML fixed model in a Genstat regression.
VSAMPLESIZE estimates the replication to detect a fixed term or contrast in a REML analysis, using parametric bootstrap.
VSCREEN performs screening tests for fixed terms in a REML analysis.
VSOM analyses a simple REML variance components model for outliers using a variance shift outlier model.
VSPECTRALCHECK forms the spectral components from the canonical components of a multitiered design, and constrains any negative spectral components to zero.
VSPREADSHEET saves results from a REML analysis in a spreadsheet.
VSURFACE fits a 2-dimensional spline surface using REML, and estimates its extreme point.
VTABLE forms a variate and set of classifying factors from a table.
VTCOMPARISONS calculates comparison contrasts within a multi-way table of predicted means from a REML analysis.
VUVCOVARIANCE forms the unit-by-unit variance-covariance matrix for specified variance components in a REML model.


WADLEY fits models for Wadley’s problem, allowing alternative links and errors.
WILCOXON performs a Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs (Signed-Rank) test.
WINDROSE plots rose diagrams of circular data like wind speeds.
WSTATISTIC calculates the Shapiro-Wilk test for Normality.


XOCATEGORIES performs analyses of categorical data from cross-over trials.
XOEFFICIENCY calculates efficiency of estimating effects in cross-over designs.
XOPOWER estimates the power of contrasts in cross-over designs.


YTRANSFORM estimates the parameter lambda of a single parameter transformation.

Updated on November 24, 2020

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