### 1. Highlights

● produced in 2003

● 4 new directives, 21 new procedures and 9 new functions

● binomial and Poisson tests (`BNTEST`

, `PNTEST`

)

● statistical process control (`SPCAPABILITY`

, `SPCCHART`

, `SPCUSUM`

, `SPEWMA`

, `SPPCHART`

, `SPSHEWHART`

)

● predictions in `REML`

(`VPREDICT`

)

● analysis of circular data (`CDESCRIBE`

, `DCIRCULAR`

, `WINDROSE`

)

● response-surface designs (`AFRESPONSESURFACE`

)

● survival-analysis enhancements (`RLIFETABLE`

, `RSTEST`

)

### 2. What’s new

**2.1 Directives**

`AFRESPONSESURFACE`

uses the BLKL algorithm to construct designs for estimating response surfaces.

`BASSESS`

assesses potential splits for regression and classification trees.

`VCYCLE`

controls details of the `REML`

algorithm.

`VPREDICT`

forms predictions from a `REML`

model.

**2.2 Procedures**

`BNTEST`

calculates one- and two-sample binomial tests.

`CDESCRIBE`

calculates summary statistics and tests of circular data.

`DCIRCULAR`

plots circular data.

`FACSORT`

sorts the levels of a factor according to an index vector.

`FSTRING`

forms a single string from a list of strings in a text.

`PNTEST`

calculates one- and two-sample Poisson tests.

`PRWILCOXON`

calculates probabilities for the Wilcoxon signed-rank statistic.

`RCOMPARISONS`

calculates comparison contrasts amongst regression means.

`RLIFETABLE`

calculates the life-table estimate of the survivor function.

`RSTEST`

compares groups of right-censored survival data by nonparametric tests.

`SPCAPABILITY`

calculates capability statistics.

`SPCCHART`

plots c or u charts representing numbers of defective items.

`SPCUSUM`

prints CUSUM tables for controlling a process mean.

`SPEWMA`

plots exponentially weighted moving-average control charts.

`SPPCHART`

plots p or np charts for binomial testing for defective items.

`SPSHEWHART`

plots control charts for mean and standard deviation or range.

`SVSTRATIFIED`

analyses stratified random surveys by expansion or ratio raising.

`TABSORT`

sorts tables so their margins are in ascending or descending order.

`TALLY`

forms a simple tally table of the distinct values in a vector.

`WINDROSE`

plots rose diagrams of circular data like wind speeds.

`XOPOWER`

estimates the power of contrasts in cross-over designs.

**2.2 Functions**

`MFRACTION(x;p;m)` |
returns the period within a month that date-time value `x` belongs to; `p` is the length of the period (e.g. 5 for pentade, 10 for decade), and `m` is the starting month (default 1). |
---|---|

`NVRESTRICTED(x)` |
synonym of `NVALUES` . |

`NVUNRESTRICTED(x)` |
number of values of `x` ignoring restrictions (i.e. gives the full length of `x` ). |

`RMEANS(x;p;q)` |
running means of `x` using a window around each unit that includes `p` preceding and `q` succeeding observations; no default for `p` (must be set) default for `q` is 0. |

`RNOBSERVATIONS(x;p;q)` |
number of observations contributing to computation of running mean or total involving `p` preceding and `q` succeeding observations about each unit of `x` ; no default for `p` (must be set) default for `q` is 0. |

`RTOTALS(x;p;q)` |
running totals of `x` using a window around each unit that includes `p` preceding and `q` succeeding observations; no default for `p` (must be set) default for `q` is 0. |

`RUNS(x)` |
length of run of values up to each unit in `x` . |

`VEC(x)` |
stacks columns of a matrix `x` into a single variate (VEC operator). |

`VECH(x)` |
stacks columns of the lower triangle of a matrix `x` (VECH operator). |

### 3. What’s changed

Most of the changes are completely compatible with Release 6.1, the previous release. There are a few commands, however, where new options or parameters have been inserted into the existing lists. These may cause problems in statements where option or parameter names have been omitted or abbreviated To avoid any difficulty, the name of the option/parameter after the new option/parameter should be given explicitly, and not abbreviated to fewer than four characters. There are also a few commands where options or parameter have been renamed, or their actions have been modified.

Any command, where changes in Release 7.1 may cause incompatibilities in existing programs, is marked below by the symbol ^{†}.

**3.1 Directives**

`CVA`

can now save the adjustment terms (using new parameter `ADJUSTMENTS`

, added at the end of the parameter list).

`KRIGE`

can now save the Lagrange multipliers from the kriging solutions (using new parameter `LAGRANGEMULTIPLIER`

, added at the end of the parameter list). If independent information is available about measurement error, you can now use this in punctual kriging (using new parameter `MEASUREMENTERROR`

, added after `LAGRANGEMULTIPLIER`

).

^{†}`RKEEP`

can now calculate exact confidence intervals for nonlinear models based on the likelihood surface rather than by assuming a quadratic surface around the optimum (new option `CIMETHOD`

inserted before `SAVE`

).

**3.2 Procedures**

The `SEED`

option settings have been redefined in the design selection procedures to match usage e.g. in the `RANDOMIZE`

directive. Standardized residuals now available instead of simple residuals diagnostic plots from analyses of variance. New selection methods are available for classification trees. Accelerated confidence limits are now available for bootstrap statistics. Exact probabilities are now available for Wilcoxon tests. The procedures concerned are listed below, with asterisks against those that may cause incompatibilities in programs from earlier releases.

`AFCARRYOVER`

and `AGCROSSOVERLATIN`

: `CARRYOVER`

parameter renamed `CARRYOVERFACTOR`

.

^{†}`AGALPHA`

, ^{†}`AGBIB`

, ^{†}`AGBOXBEHNKEN`

, ^{†}`AGCENTRALCOMPOSITE`

, ^{†}`AGCROSSOVERLATIN`

, ^{†}`AGCYCLIC`

, ^{†}`AGDESIGN`

, ^{†}`AGFRACTION`

, ^{†}`AGHIERARCHICAL`

, ^{†}`AGLATIN`

, ^{†}`AGMAINEFFECT`

, ^{†}`AGNEIGHBOUR`

, ^{†}`AGSEMILATIN`

, ^{†}`AGSQLATTICE`

: change to the `SEED`

option. A zero value now continues any existing sequence of random numbers or, if none, selects a seed automatically using the system clock. Negative values suppress randomization. Default when running the procedures in batch is now -1 instead of 0.

^{†}`APLOT`

: new `RMETHOD`

option (inserted before `INDEX`

) allows you to choose standardized residuals instead of simple ones.

^{†}`AUNBALANCED`

and `AUDISPLAY`

: new `RMETHOD`

option (as final option) to allow you to choose standardized residuals instead of simple ones, and `TPROBABILITY`

(inserted between `TPROBABILITY`

and `PLOT`

) to print probabilities for t statistics.

^{†}`BCLASSIFICATION`

: new options `METHOD`

(between `PRINT`

and `GROUPS`

) to request use of the mean posterior improvement criterion instead of Gini information to select characters, and `ANTIENDCUTFACTOR`

(at end of option list) to request adaptive anti-end-cut factors; see Taylor & Silverman (1993). New parameter `ORDERED`

(at end of parameter list) to indicate whether factors for use in the tree have ordered or unordered levels.

^{†}`BOOTSTRAP`

: new option `CIMETHOD`

(between `METHOD`

and `VCOVARIANCE`

) to select bias-corrected and accelerated comfidence intervals.

`BREGRESSION`

: new parameter `ORDERED`

(at end of parameter list) to indicate whether factors for use in the tree have ordered or unordered levels.

^{†}`CUMDISTRIBUTION`

has been rewritten to allow for groups. The new version will fit all the models provided by the previous version, except for those using the `calculation`

setting of `TRANSFORMATION`

(which is now no longer available). Several parameters and options have been added to make the procedure more flexible and to extend the models that can be fitted. Option `DENSITY`

has been renamed `DISTRIBUTION`

, and option `PARAMETER`

has been deleted as it is no longer applicable. The `shift`

transformation of the previous version is now achieved by setting the new `LAG`

option. Graphs are now in high resolution, and controlled by the `PLOT`

option. Parameter `NUNITS`

has been replaced by the more comprehensive `SAVE`

parameter. `NPOPULATIONS`

now has an upper limit of 3. The form of the `DATA`

input is more flexible: counts need not be accumulated, and the first count need not be 0. Initial values are no longer required. Results may change slightly as the new procedure removes some constraints due to limits in the mathematical functions available in previous releases of GenStat. In addition, degrees of freedom may vary, as the new procedure now explicitly includes a count of 0 at `TIME`

=0 if no `DATA`

are supplied for `TIME`

=0.

`JACKKNIFE`

: new parameter `ACCELERATION`

(at end of parameter list) to save the acceleration parameter requires to calculate accelerated confidence limits for bootstrap statistics.

`LRVSCREE`

: can now generate high-resolution plots of the latent roots (using new options `PLOT`

, `TITLE`

and `WINDOW`

, added at end of option list).

^{†}`MVARIOGRAM`

: can now fit cubic and stable (i.e. powered exponential) models (new settings `cubic`

and `stable`

for the `MODEL`

option, and new option `SMOOTHMESS`

added between `MODEL`

and `WEIGHTING`

).

`PROBITANALYSIS`

: `PRINT`

option has a new setting `effectivedoses`

to control printing of effective (or lethal) doses.

^{†}`RPAIR`

: a new setting `estimable`

has been added to the `COMBINATIONS`

option and is now the default (as in the `PREDICT`

directive).

^{†}`TTEST`

: the `CIPROB`

option has been renamed `CIPROBABILITY`

. The `INTERVAL`

parameter has been replaced by new parameters `LOWER`

and `UPPER`

.

^{†}`WILCOXON`

: `NORMAL`

parameter replaced by `PROBABILITY`

parameter (to save probabilities, calculated using the new `PRWILCOXON`

procedure, rather than Normal approximations).

^{†}`XOEFFICIENCY`

: `NPERIOD`

and `CONTRASTS`

options renamed `NPERIODS`

and `CONTRASTTYPE`

.

**3.3 Functions**

`INVERSE`

now works on diagonal matrices (as well as square and symmetric matrices).

`GINVERSE`

now works on diagonal matrices (as well as square and symmetric matrices).

`NDAYINYEAR(x;m)`

provides the number of the day in year corresponding to date-time value `x`

, and starting the year at the beginning of month `m`

(default 1).

`NWEEKINYEAR(x;s)`

is the number of the week through the year for date-time value `x`

. The default setting for `s`

is `'iso'`

; this uses the definition of ISO Standard IS-8601 (1988) in which any week (starting on Monday) that lies in more than one year is assigned a week number for the year in which most of its days occur. The alternative setting, `'simple'`

, takes the first week of the year as the one containing 1st January.